Endoscopy means looking inside and typically refers to looking inside the body for medical reasons using an endoscope, an instrument used to examine the interior of a hollow organ or cavity of the body. Unlike most other medical imaging devices, endoscopes are inserted directly into the organ. There are many different types of endoscope, and depending on the site in the body and the type of procedure.
The role of Endoscopy prior an ART Treatments:-
- Diagnostic Laproscopy
- Uterine Fibroids
- Endometriosis & Endometrioma
- Diagnostic Hysteroscopy
- Intra- Uterine Polyps, septum , adhesions Laparoscopic picture of a normal female pelvis Laparoscopic photo of an abnormal pelvis with severe scarring.
Why Is Diagnostic Laparoscopy Performed?
A laparoscope is a telescope designed for medical use. It is connected to a high intensity light and a high-resolution television camera so that the surgeon can see what is happening inside of you. The laparoscope is put into the abdominal cavity through a hollow tube and the image of the inside of your abdomen is seen on the television screen. In most cases, this procedure (operation) will be able to diagnose or help discover what the abdominal problem is, abdominal pain, abdominal mass , ascites, liver disease, second look procedure or cancer staging.
Uterine Fibroids ?
Uterine fibroids are very common non-cancerous (benign) growths that develop in the muscular wall of the uterus. Occasionally, they can cause the uterus to grow to the size of a five-month pregnancy. In most cases, there is more than one fibroid in the uterus. While fibroids do not always cause symptoms, their size and location can lead to problems for some women, including pain and heavy bleeding.
Endometriosis & Endometrioma ?
Endometriosis is usually a long-lasting (chronic) disease. When you have endometriosis, the type of tissue that lines your uterus is also growing outside your uterus.
A common complication of endometriosis is the development of a cyst on an ovary. This blood-filled growth is called an ovarian endometrioma or an endometrial cyst
Tubal Disease and Hydrosalphinx
Tubal disease, a disorder in which the tubes are blocked or damaged, is responsible for approximately 25 percent to 35 percent of all female factor infertility. Tubal factor infertility is defined as any anatomic abnormality that prevents the sperm and egg from uniting..
Damage and blockage of the end portion of a fallopian tube can cause it to become filled with fluid, the swollen and fluid-filled tube is called a hydrosalpinx.
Today thanks to ART, tubal disease and tubal factor infertility is easily overcome. The accepted theory today is that the hydrosalpinx fluid plays a causative role in the reduced pregnancy rate with ART. It is well known that the success of ART for patients with tubal disease with hydrosalpinx is reduced by half compared with patients without hydrosalpinx.
Abdominal adhesions are bands of scar tissue that form between abdominal tissues and organs, causing them to stick together.
Adhesions can effect the female reproductive organs ( ovaries , fallopian tubes ), the bowel, the area around the heart, the spine and the hand. They can cause range of problems including infertility , dyspareunia, ( painful intercourse ), pelvic pain and bowel obstruction or blockage. Adhesions can also lead to a complex set of problems called adhesion – related disorder ARD )
What is a hysteroscopy?
Hysteroscopy is a procedure that lets your doctor look inside your womb (uterus). This is done using a narrow tube-like instrument called a hysteroscope. The hysteroscope is very slim (about 3 to 5 millimetres in diameter). It’s carefully passed through the vagina and neck of the uterus (cervix) and into your uterus. The hysteroscope has a video camera inside which sends pictures to a computer screen. This allows your doctor to check for any abnormalities in the lining of the uterus.
What is Diagnostic hysteroscopy used for?
A hysteroscopy may be used to try to determine the cause of various problems such as:
- Heavy or irregular bleeding that has not got better with medication.
- Bleeding in between your periods.
- Bleeding after your menopause.
- Irregular bleeding whilst you are taking hormone replacement therapy (HRT).
- If you are thinking about having an operation to make your periods less heavy (eg, endometrial ablation).
- Unexplained miscarriages.
Intra- Uterine Polyps, septum , adhesions
Observational studies suggest increased pregnancy rates after the hysteroscopic removal of endometrial polyps, submucous fibroids, uterine septum, or intrauterine adhesions, which can be found in 10% to 15% of women seeking treatment for subfertility