Infertility is a growing social and medical problem affecting every 10th couple all over the world. Treating infertility is challenging. Young couples are increasingly finding it difficult to have babies.
The endometrial genome analysis (ERA) entails evaluating a woman’s endometrial receptivity status from a molecular point of view. The molecular tool helps to understand whether endometrium is receptive or not, by evaluating the appearance of a group of genes responsible for this function. This diagnostic method is having the patent by iGenomix and the main focus of the diagnostic method is females with fertility problems.
Females who are facing fertility problems can be benefited with endometrial gene expression diagnosis. Because causes that may affect the embryo implantation can be detected beforehand and successful remedial measures can be taken prior to Fertility treatments. It also helps in early detection of diseases originating in endometrial lining of uterus.
Endometrial receptivity is a complicated process. Even though endometrial receptivity has been largely researched with number of biochemical markers including integrin and leukaemia inhibitory factors but none of the markers were found to be clinically useful as an indicator. But it is so far believed that improved endometrial receptivity ensures increased pregnancy rate and less early pregnancy failures. For a successful implantation adequate preparation of receptive endometrium is essential. It is generally understood that the receptive period (the window of implantation) of the human opens 4-5 after progesterone production and closes after 9-10 days. Still the molecular base pre-implantation and implantation process is not well known.
Fast growing technologies such as ERA is ushering in new biomarkers to the medical field that guarantees to unravel the complexities of the implantation process. In addition ERA as diagnostic method will give better insight into female implantation process and help in preparing the treatment strategy beforehand.
Controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) is broadly used in the assisted reproduction techniques. The hormonal treatment consists of endometrial alterations, which can alter the rates of implantation in comparison to natural cycle. Endometrial alterations are done through biochemical or historical techniques. There have been several recent developments as far as functional genomics are concerned and has provided the objective set of tools to for analyzing endometrium and also evaluate the effect of COS protocols in development of endometrium.
The basic aim of COS protocols is getting varying number of follicles and obtain 8 to 10 oocytes and with which you can get the cohort of embryos and two of them will get transferred. COS protocols are mainly focused on quality of embryos obtained and considering it as acceptable collateral effect.
The ART protocols are believed to be evolved with antagonist and agonist along with gonadotrophins that aim to achieve high level of pregnancy rates and may also go to have multiple births.