The embryo is formed by the fertilization of the sperm and the egg. Egg is made in the ovaries of the female, while the sperm is produced in the testis of the male. For eggs and sperms to be healthy, it is important that the reproductive system is healthy and functioning normally.
THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
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Women with regular cycles ovulates once in a month which is generally between day 12 to day 18 of her menstrual cycle. Ovaries are located on both sides of the uterus where eggs (ooctyes) are made. These eggs are picked-up by the tube and transported to the middle of the tube in a short time. If the couple has a successful sexual contact around this time, then adequate number of sperms disperse inside the uterus and the tube and an embryo is formed, by the egg being fertilized with the sperm in the fallopion tube. Following this, the embryo is propelled into the uterus where it sticks to the uterine lining and this is the beginning of development of a nascent baby or fetus.
MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
The testis are located in the scrotal sac and produce both sperms and testosterone, the hormone that helps to maintain male sexual characteristics. The sperms are formed in the testis in the scrotal sac but complete maturation takes about 3 months. Hence any medicine given / prescribed for the treatment of male infertility will require atleast 3 months to show its efficacy.
A woman’s fertile period is around mid-cycle, day12- day 18 in a regularly menstruating women. The cervical mucus is receptive to the sperm around this time. Age is an important factor in the fertility of a couple. Fertility decreases with age. About one third of the women who defer pregnancy until their mid thirty’s will have a problem becoming pregnant.